Chronic kidney disease and Symptom
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Chronic kidney disease is a slow and gradual (months to years) decline in the kidneys’ ability to filter metabolic waste products from the blood.
- The main causes are diabetes and high blood pressure.
- The blood becomes more acidic, anaemia appears, nerves are damaged, bone tissue degenerates, and the risk of atherosclerosis is increased.
- Symptoms may include nocturia, fatigue, nausea, itchiness, kinks and cramps, loss of appetite, confusion, difficulty breathing, and swelling of the body (most often the legs).
- The diagnosis is made by blood and urine tests.
- The goal of treatment is to use drugs to limit water, sodium, and potassium during meals, to correct other abnormalities (such as diabetes, high blood pressure, anaemia, and electrolyte imbalance), and to use dialysis or a kidney transplant if necessary.
Many diseases can cause irreversible kidney damage or injury. Acute kidney damage becomes chronic kidney disease if kidney function does not recover after treatment and persists for more than 3 months. So, anything that can cause acute kidney damage can cause chronic kidney disease. However, the most common causes of chronic kidney disease in Western countries are:
- High blood pressure
Both of these or more directly damage the small blood vessels in the kidney.
Other causes of chronic kidney disease include urinary tract obstruction (obstruction), certain kidney abnormalities (such as polycystic kidney disease and glomerulonephritis ), and autoimmune diseases in which antibodies damage small blood vessels (glomeruli) and small tubes (urinary tubules) in the kidney. ( Systemic lupus erythematosus [lupus] ).
- If the level of renal loss is mild or moderate, the kidneys are unable to absorb water from the urine and the volume of urine is reduced and concentrated.
- Later, the kidneys lose their ability to excrete the acid produced by the body normally, and the blood becomes more acidic, a condition called acidosis.
- The production of red blood cells decreases, leading to anaemia.
- arms, and legs. High uric acid levels can sometimes lead to gout.
- Diseased kidneys produce hormones that increase blood pressure. Also, a diseased kidney is unable to excrete excess salt and water. The pockets surrounding the heart (pericardium) can swell ( pericarditis ).
- Triglyceride levels in the blood are often elevated, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis in addition to high blood pressure.
- The prolonged existence of certain conditions following chronic kidney disease can impede the formation and maintenance of bone tissue (elongated bone dysplasia). These abnormalities include high levels of parathyroid hormone, low blood calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D ), inhibition of calcium absorption, and high blood phosphate levels. Renal osteogenesis disorder can lead to bone pain and an increased risk of fractures.
Symptoms usually appear very slowly. Symptoms progress as kidney failure progresses and metabolic waste products accumulate in the blood.
Mild to moderate loss of renal function can cause only mild symptoms, such as the need to urinate several times at night (nocturia). Nocturia occurs because the kidneys are unable to absorb water from the urine, resulting in decreased urine volume and increased concentration, which usually occurs in the middle of the night.
As kidney function worsens and more metabolic waste products accumulate in the blood, you may feel tired, your body generally weakens, and you may become less mentally alert. Some people experience loss of appetite or difficulty breathing. Anemia also contributes to fatigue and systemic weakness.
The buildup of metabolic waste products can also lead to loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and an unpleasant taste in the mouth, which can lead to malnutrition and weight loss. People with chronic kidney disease tend to bruise easily or bleed for an unusually long period, usually after amputation or other injuries. Chronic kidney disease also reduces the body’s ability to fight infection. Gout causes acute arthritis with joint pain and swelling.
Severe kidney failure causes higher levels of metabolic waste products to accumulate in the blood. Muscle and nerve damage can cause muscle contraction, muscle weakness, cramps, and pain. In addition, you may feel a pinch with a needle in your limbs and you may lose sensation in certain areas of the body. These people may have restless legs syndrome. Encephalopathy, in which the brain is not functioning properly, can follow, leading to confusion, drowsiness, and seizures.
Heart failure can cause breathing difficulties. Body swelling, especially leg swelling, may occur. Pericarditis can cause chest pain and low blood pressure. People with advanced chronic kidney disease often develop gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeding. The skin can turn a tan, and sometimes the urea concentration is too high, crystallizing from sweat, forming a white powder on the skin. Some people with chronic kidney disease have a whole body itchy. Breathing odour can also be unpleasant.